Determination of characteristic values/Material characterization

The determination of relevant characteristic material values describing the material behavior under real process conditions, including those arising during deformation or the applied forming temperatures, forming speeds or effective strains, is highly important for numerical simulation and for validating experiments and components.

Characterization of material behavior

  • Yield locus curves and resulting yield locus curves (biaxial testing)
  • Cyclic tension-compression tests (Bauschinger effect)
  • Formability (forming limit curves according to ISO 12004 and up to 950 °C)

Determination of mechanical-physical characteristic material values
(ambient temperature up to 1100 °C, 0.00001 s-1 up to 1000 s-1)

  • Elastic characteristic values (E-module, Poisson’s ratio)
  • Plastic characteristic values (uniform elongation, strain hardening coefficient n, elongation at fracture)
  • Strength parameters (yield strength, elastic limit, tensile strength, compressive strength)
  • Stress-strain diagrams
  • Characteristic anisotropy values according to ISO 10113 (r values)
  • Flow curves

Determination of thermal-physical characteristic material values

  • Thermal expansion coefficient
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Calculation of thermal conductivity

Determination of technological characteristic material values

  • Strain analysis
  • Tribology and friction behavior (ambient temperature up to 1000 °C)
  • Tube expansion tests /bursting tests (ambient temperature up to 1000 °C)
  • Bulge test and maxi bulge test (determination of flow behavior above uniform elongation)
  • Erichsen cupping / Erichsen index
  • Limiting drawing ratios
  • Hole expansion ratio according to ISO 16630

Determination of material structure and internal stresses

  • Qualitative structure evaluation
  • Quantitative analysis of structure parameters
  • Quantitative determination of layer thicknesses and other variables in microscopic images
  • Small-load testing, microhardness testing and hardness measurement (HV, HB, HRC)
  • Hardness profiles and hardness mapping
  • Roughness measurements
  • Radiographic investigations

Component testing

  • Structure and surface (internal stresses, microstructures, layers, etc.)
  • Mechanical properties (hardness, strength, etc.)
  • Geometrical features (shape, recess, etc.)

  • Providing realistic characteristic values for FE simulation
  • Description of the forming capacity of materials and material composites
  • Consideration of phenomena (springback, Bauschinger effect, etc.)
  • Validating the results of FE simulation

  • Preparation of samples and grindings for light and electron microscopy
  • Process for microstructural characterization of materials and material composites
  • Testing process for determination of mechanical, thermal and technological characteristic material values
  • Development and evaluation of process-specific and application-oriented testing methods and testing strategies
  • Component testing

  • Material testing machine Zwick 1475 with spatially-resolved strain measurement, a high tempering system up to 1100 °C and a maximum force of 100 kN
  • Material testing machine Zwick FR020TN with a maximum force of 20 kN
  • Biaxial tensile testing machine Zwick BX1-FR250SW.A1K with a maximum force of 30 kN for small samples and 250 kN for large samples
  • Material testing machine UTS 20 with vacuum – protective gas – furnace system up to 1600°C
  • Machine for rapid stress-rupturing Zwick-HTM 16020, testing speed in tension and compression up to 20 m/s, temperable up to 1000°C
  • Tempered strip drawing machine with redirection of 90°
  • Strip drawing machine for planar sheet strips
  • FLC test station (tool temperatures of up to 500 °C)
  • Maxi bulge test station diameter300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm and ellipsis 200 x 500 mm
  • Test station for pipe expansion test station
  • Erichsen sheet metal and strip testing machine 145
  • X-ray diffractometer Xstress 3000 G2
  • Dilatometer DIL 402 C
  • Dynamic difference calorimeter DSC 404 F3
  • Laser-flash apparatus LFA 427
  • Test station for determining the heat transmission coefficient between various materials in high surface pressures
  • Z snapper by ViALUX
  • Automated hardness testing machine EMCOTEST M1C 010-DR
  • 3D ESPI measurement system for displacement and strain Q300 TCT by Dantec
  • 3D measurement system for contour, displacement and strain, by GOM
  • AutoGrid® strain analysis systems by ViALUX
  • Optimized screening equipment (electrochemical screening, silk screening technology)
  • Thermographic camera InfraTec VarioScan 3021 ST with a measuring range from ambient temperature up to 1100 °C
  • Reflected-light microscope NikonEpiphot and stereomicroscope Olympus SZX 10
  • Technologies of cutting, embedding, grinding and polishing as a basis for metallographic investigations (e.g. determination of microstructure and macro structure, hardness testing, determination of characteristic values for cut surfaces)
  • Sensors for detecting the inductor current for process analysis and process monitoring
  • Process-specific technology for safety, control and measurement for a maximum internal pressure of up to 1000 bar